SNUJIA

Volume 1

Issues

VOLUME 1


Volume 1, Issue 2 (Fall 2016)

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1. "The Tolstoy-Dolan Mission and the Establishment of US-Tibetan Relations: An Investigation Into the Events that Unfolded After the First Visit of American Representatives to Lhasa in 1943"

  • Author: Maximilian Ernst
  • Publication Year : 2016
  • Source: Seoul National University Journal of International Affairs Vol.1 (2), pages 3 – 13
  • Document Type: Research Article
  • Subjects: Asian Studies
  • Keywords: US-Tibetan relations, Tibet, Japan, China, Office of Strategic Service (OSS), World War II, Tolstoy, Dolan

Abstract

This article investigates the events that unfolded during and after the visit of two Office of Strategic Service (OSS) agents to Lhasa in spring 1943. To date, not much is known about this first visit of American representatives to the state of Tibet, which happened at a time when the US and its allies’ strategic priority was the containment of Japanese influence in the China-Burma-India (CBI) Theater. Through an analysis of cables between the US government agencies in Washington and with embassies of allies in both Washington and Chongqing, this article reconstructs these events. More specifically, the complications that unfolded throughout the year 1943 can be traced back to the visit of Captain Ilia Tolstoy and Lieutenant Brooke Dolan to Lhasa in February. The major findings of this analysis are: 1) Lhasa was actively endeavoring independence from China and sought to do so by establishing friendly relations with the US, prior to the end of WWII; 2) the involvement of the OSS in the Tibetan independence struggle, at the time against the advice of the State Department, foreshadows the CIA’s actions in Tibet in the 1950s; 3) the suboptimal communication between US government agencies, as well as the secretiveness among the Allied forces, most prominently the Chongqing Government."

2. "Allies to Enemies: Race, Religion and American Perceptions of China from 1937-1953"

  • Author: Jordan DeWeger 
  • Publication Year : 2016
  • Source: Seoul National University Journal of International Affairs Vol.1 (2), pages 14 – 28
  • Document Type: Research Article
  • Subjects: Asian Studies, History
  • Keywords: US Foreign Policy, religion, race, Christianity, China, Korean war, ally, enemy

Abstract:

"The years 1937-1953 witnessed an incredible turnabout in US foreign policy; China was transformed from a praised ally into a demonized enemy. Along with a drastic change in formal diplomatic relations came changes in American perceptions of Chinese themselves. These perceptions were shaped by a long tradition of “yellow peril” anxieties, but also a mixture of missionary zeal to Christianize China and capitalize on its markets. Throughout the Pacific War, Americans characterized China as an honorable ally. Much of this support was based on the strong cultural and Christian ties Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek and his wife Soong Mei-ling had to the United States, despite clear evidence of corruption and a lack of popular support. Following the war, Mao Zedong’s Communists triumphed over the Nationalists and Americans were left asking: “who lost China?” With the entrance of the Chinese People’s Volunteer Army into the Korean War, Americans completed the dramatic reconstruction of the Chinese, imagining them as an inscrutable, treacherous enemy. Yet whether considered allies or enemies, influential American leaders in the government and media produced discourse and imagery of Chinese that appealed to the racial and religious preconceptions of the majority of Americans, the implications of which reverberate to the present."

3. "Why China Needs Freedom of Speech: Economic Reform and the Rule of Law"

  • Author: Gordon Gatlin
  • Publication Year : 2016
  • Source: Seoul National University Journal of International Affairs Vol.1 (2), pages 29 – 34
  • Document Type: Short Commentary Article
  • Subjects: Asian Studies
  • Keywords: Xi Jinping, Chinese Communist Party (CCP), political expression, censorship, economic reform

Abstract:

"The rhetoric of the Chinese Communist Party (CPC) under Xi Jinping embraces both a market-based consumer economy and the rule of law. The two are clearly intertwined as the rule of law underpins credible capital accumulation for ordinary citizens. Legal scholars have argued that judicial independence is a prerequisite for the rule of law, but have not yet clearly shown that freedom of expression underpins the former. Despite rhetorical promotion of the rule of law, the Chinese government continues to undermine this nebulous concept by criminalizing certain forms of political expression and censoring others. This essay describes how Chinese economic reforms since the Deng Xiaoping era have been successful only because of political reforms that were implemented in tandem. Without a greater degree of freedom of expression, the CPC will continue to undermine the rule of law and the economic reforms its rhetoric supports."

4. "A Review of the Ruling on the Interpretation of the 'Prudential Exception' in Argentina – Measures Relating to Trade in Goods and Services (WT/DS453/AB/R)"

  • Author: Flora van Laar
  • Publication Year : 2016
  • Source: Seoul National University Journal of International Affairs Vol.1 (2), pages 35 – 41 
  • Document Type: Academic Essay
  • Subjects: International Economics & Finance
  • Keywords: World Trade Organization (WTO), Argentina, dispute settlement, 'prudential exception', international finance

Abstract:

"Last year, the WTO Dispute Resolution Body for the first time ruled on a case submitted to it in light of the ‘prudential exception’ of paragraph 2(a) of the Annex on Financial Services. Because of its broad and vague formulation Members have experienced difficulty in applying the exception and a ruling by the Panel and Appellate Body had therefore been eagerly awaited. Due to the extensive potential implications on the regulation of the financial sector within Members this provision potentially has, the exception, until the recent Argentina-Financial Services case, had not been tested in the WTO Dispute Settlement system. A key issue here is balancing the right of Members to regulate their financial services and determine what ‘prudential exceptions’ for it are and the right to free trade in financial services. This paper examines whether the Panel and Appellate Body enlightened Members on the scope and applicability of this exception and clarifies concerns from Members as well as financial sectors on the issue. It does this by examining the language of the provision, the ruling of the WTO Dispute Settlement Body in the case Argentina-Financial Services, the implications of this case and the use of such a ‘prudential exception’ in other multilateral and bilateral agreements. It concludes that the Panel and Appellate Body here followed the intentions of the drafters of the provision and although providing some clarifications on the scope of the provision, it still leaves many considerations open for future debate."

5. "Making Humanitarian Intervention Work: The Political, Strategic and Credibility Requirements for Success"

  • Author: Diego Filiu
  • Publication Year: 2016
  • Source: Seoul National University Journal of International Affairs Vol.1 (2), pages 42 – 56 
  • Document Type: Academic Essay
  • Subjects: International Security
  • Keywords: Humanitarian crises, legitimacy, US intervention, Taylor Seybolt, military intervention

Abstract:

"The end of the Cold War imparted upon the United States new responsibilities to address humanitarian crises abroad. Reacting to major eruptions of violence, the US intervened in several countries throughout the 1990s. This paper focuses on four case studies: Northern Iraq (1991-96), Somalia (1992-95), Bosnia (1992-95), and Kosovo (1999). I will exploit Taylor Seybolt’s methodology, using the number of lives saved as the criterion to determine the success of humanitarian interventions. I will demonstrate that success relies on three main factors. First, the extent of political involvement of the intervener(s) in the target country’s future and the resulting degree of military commitment of intervening forces, i.e. whether the intervener is willing to risk soldiers’ lives. Second, the strategic appropriateness of the intervention, i.e. the relevance of the intervener’s strategic choice in dealing with the source of violence (avoidance, defense, deterrence, or compellence). Third, the degree of local, regional, international and domestic credibility and legitimacy of the intervention. I will argue that, should these three criteria not be met, interventions are likely to generate excessive and unforeseen costs for the intervener as well as for the target country’s civilian population."

6. "The Relationship Between Global Liquidity and Capital Flows in Emerging Countries"

  • Author: Aram Ra
  • Publication Year : 2016
  • Source: Seoul National University Journal of International Affairs Vol.1 (2), pages 57 – 84
  • Document Type: Research Article
  • Subjects: International Economics & Finance
  • Keywords: Global financial crisis, capital inflows, global liquidity, emerging countries, Asia, Latin America, Eastern Europe

Abstract:

"Recently, global liquidity has received widespread attention for its impact on capital inflows to emerging countries after the global financial crisis. Accordingly, this paper defines the global liquidity as the “G3 (US, Euro Area, Japan) currency denominated cross-border credit aggregates”, and examines the relationship between global liquidity and capital inflows to emerging countries. Panel data of 24 countries from 2000Q1 to 2015Q4 is utilized for empirical analysis. The regression results show that global liquidity excess increases capital inflows to emerging countries. Also, bank borrowing is found to be the most vulnerable capital flow, especially before the global financial crisis. Based on the sub-period analysis, the results suggest that the relationship between global liquidity and capital flows is different in pre- and post-financial crisis periods. In the post-crisis period, most emerging regions show less vulnerability as capital moves back to G3 countries during their economic recovery. Regional features are also an important finding of this article, as three regions – Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe – show different patterns of vulnerability and procyclicality regarding global liquidity. Asia is found to be the least vulnerable region in terms of capital flow after global financial crisis but with chronic vulnerability of bank borrowing and potential pro-cyclical risk in bond. Latin showed the most vulnerability and pro-cyclicality because the region has relied on the foreign borrowing to offset its current account deficit and adjust its exchange rate. East Europe was presented to be the least vulnerable because most of them are already EU members which means that their economies are a lot integrated with the Euro market. However, east Europe has potential pro-cyclical risk that is implicit in equity because the region has implemented the pro-cyclical policies to boost the economies and to meet the EU or Eurozone criteria."

7. "US Pivot to China: Two Levels and a Dual Strategy"

  • Author: Benedikt Buechel
  • Publication Year : 2016
  • Source: Seoul National University Journal of International Affairs Vol.1 (2) , pages 85 – 92
  • Document Type: Academic Essay
  • Subjects: Asian Studies
  • Keywords: US-China relations, strategy, engagement, containment, China's rise

Abstract:

"This essay is divided into two parts. First, it will present the different strategic options of how the United States should react to China’s emergence as a global superpower if it wants to maintain its hegemonic position and the current world order. Given that most proposed strategies follow one paradigm, they have difficulties in explaining the seemingly contradicting behavior of the Chinese leadership. This essay will advance from the distinction between ‘regional’ and ‘global’ to prevent such a limitation. The author asserts that there is evidence to argue that the US should follow a ‘dual strategy’ of general engagement and situational balancing."

Volume 1, Issue 1 (Spring 2016)

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1. "Does Area Studies Need Theory?"

  • Author: Vee Chansa-Ngavej and Kyu Young Lee
  • Publication Year : 2016
  • Source: Seoul National University Journal of International Affairs Vol.1 (1) , pages 4 – 11
  • Document Type: Academic Essay
  • Subjects: International Area Studies, Theory
  • Keywords: Area studies, theory, universalists, area scholars, social science 

Abstract:

"There has been a long-standing debate between “area scholars” and “universalists” on whether or not area studies needs to have its own theories in order to progress as a social science discipline. This paper seeks to argue that area studies does not need its own social science theory per se, since area studies in itself is an amalgamation of several social science disciplines. Therefore, area scholars must draw upon the theoretical strengths of each discipline in order to obtain comprehensive knowledge of the area, as opposed to creating a specific “area theory.” In the conduct of area research, it is nevertheless crucial that proper social science methodologies be employed as appropriate to each research topic or puzzle. This will enable the discipline to have proper direction and be able to contribute to theory building in other social science subjects, while at the same time garner respect for area studies as a social science discipline in itself. Otherwise, area studies will be a rudderless academic black hole that is neither standardized nor systematic."

2. "Explaining North Korean Nuclear Behavior: North Korea's Second Nuclear Crisis"

  • Author: Andrew Roskos-Ewoldsen
  • Publication Year : 2016
  • Source: Seoul National University Journal of International Affairs Vol.1 (1) , pages 12 – 24
  • Document Type: Academic Essay
  • Subjects: Asian Studies, International Security
  • Keywords: North Korea, DPRK, Northeast Asia, nuclear, constructivism, neorealism, prospect theory

Abstract:

"This paper attempts to explain North Korean nuclear behavior during the time period known as the second nuclear crisis. This crisis is characterized by erratic behavior by the North Korean government from 2002 to 2009, where the state swung wildly back and forth from cooperative, non-threatening nuclear behavior to aggressive, threatening nuclear behavior. This was significant because it had major security implications for Northeast Asia and the world with the possibility of nuclear violence, but also because this type of behavior is unprecedented. Normally, states pursuing nuclear proficiency are steadfast in their pursuit, but North Korea displayed inconsistent and oddly timed transitions in nuclear policy. Two models, neorealism and a synthesized theory called constructivist prospect theory, are used to explain these unusual transitions. Their findings help us in understanding this strange and critical period of history, and also reveal insights into the strengths and weaknesses of both approaches."

3. "From Ballistics to Demography - Chinese Population Control Policies in Historical Perspective"

  • Author: Cesare M. Scartozzi
  • Publication Year : 2016
  • Source: Seoul National University Journal of International Affairs Vol.1 (1) , pages 25 – 36
  • Document Type: Research Article
  • Subjects: Asian Studies, History
  • Keywords: China, Communist Party of China (CPC), demographics, population control, one-child policy

Abstract:

"China has undergone a transforming demographic transition that, in less than a century, has brought its population from 500 million to 1.340 billion. During this transition, the Communist Party of China (CPC) has tried to shape the demographic trends by implementing a set of pronatalist and population control policies. This paper reconstructs CPC’s internal debate on demography by using the perspectives of practitioners and academics involved in the decision-making process. In particular, the historical investigation of this study shines a light on the influence that military scientists had in the planning of the one-child policy."

4. "Hopeless Case or Cause for Hope?: Lubanga, Katanga and Gender Justice in the ICC"

  • Author: Josh Pallas
  • Publication Year : 2016
  • Source: Seoul National University Journal of International Affairs Vol.1 (1) , pages 37 – 53
  • Document Type: Academic Essay
  • Subjects: International Law, Gender Studies
  • Keywords: International Criminal Court (ICC), Lubanga, Katanga, gender, gender justice, Rome Statute

Abstract:

"This paper will evaluate the status of the Rome Statute and International Criminal Court for prosecuting sexual violence, particularly rape. It will become evident that there is a disjuncture between the very progressive Rome Statute and the outcomes of the first two successful prosecutions of the Court which failed at providing gender justice. In Prosecutor v Lubanga, the prosecutor failed to charge crimes of sexual violence, yet proceeded to call evidence to this effect through trial. He was strongly rebuked by the judges for doing so. In Prosecutor v Katanga, the Prosecutor laid charges of rape inter alia. Katanga was acquitted of these charges because the Prosecutor failed to call evidence which could prove an effective chain of command. The paper will draw on Julia Quilter’s analysis and explanation of a similar dissonance between law and practice in New South Wales, with particular reference to the concepts of the rape schema and iterability, habitus and field. Gender justice is failing at the ICC because of an internalized rape schema within the prosecutorial practice which inter alia perpetuates the myth that crimes of sexual violence are of a lesser importance than others. Notwithstanding the poor current outcomes for gender justice in the ICC, there are strong indications that this is changing and that the practice will soon reflect the progressiveness of the Rome Statute."

5. "A Review of "Poorly Made in China: An Insider's Account of the Tactics Behind China's Production Game"

  • Author: Linde Desmaele
  • Publication Year : 2016
  • Source: Seoul National University Journal of International Affairs Vol.1 (1) , pages 54 – 57
  • Document Type: Book Review
  • Subjects: International Economics, Asian Studies
  • Keywords: China, Paul Midler, South China, manufacturing, Chinese products, outsourcing

Abstract:

"In “Poorly Made in China”, Paul Midler takes his readers on a trip through South China where Chinese manufacturing is concentrated. During this journey, he reveals all sorts of things that can –and often do- go wrong when US companies shift production to China. For more than fifteen years, Midler lived and worked in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, as an outsourcing consultant for small-to-mid-sized American companies on a range of products. In his book, he provides an exposing and sometimes funny narrative of life and commerce in and around the Guangdong Province. A series of scandals about poisoned baby milk and dangerous toys raising questions about Chinese manufacturing standards worldwide motivated Midler to write about his personal experiences in the field. The result is the fascinating – and yet to a certain extent also disturbing – twenty-two chapter-long “Poorly Made in China."